Brasil participa de pesquisa mundial sobre “O Hobbit”

Você ama a trilogia “O Hobbit”? Ou acha que Peter Jackson e companhia escorregaram feio nos novos filmes? Seja como for, você terá a chance de opinar detalhadamente sobre a série e ainda ajudar pesquisadores do mundo todo, inclusive do Brasil, a entender melhor o impacto da trilogia. Esse é o objetivo do “World Hobbit Project”, que está sendo lançado junto com “A Batalha dos Cinco Exércitos”.

Confira o comunicado que eu acabo de receber da universidade catarinense Univali, que conta como funcionará o projeto. E, se estiver interessado, não deixe de participar!

Univali integra pesquisa mundial sobre trilogia O Hobbit — Estudo envolverá pesquisadores de 46 países

​Santa Catarina – Estreia amanhã (11) no Brasil e em vários países do mundo, a parte final da trilogia “O Hobbit” . Nesse mesmo dia, será lançado um projeto mundial que envolverá pesquisadores de 46 países na investigação de audiência e a respeito do papel que a fantasia e a cultura de fã exercem na cultura contemporânea. No Brasil, a investigação tem a coordenação da professora Valquiria Michela John, da Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (Univali) e da professora Nilda Jacks, da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). Na Univali, o estudo envolverá outros três professores pesquisadores e dois bolsistas, integrantes do grupo Monitor de Mídia.

A pesquisa, disponível no site do projeto – www.worldhobbitproject.org, vai coletar respostas em mais de 30 idiomas. Quem ama ou critica o filme? Qual diferença pode ter para os que leram o livro? Como as pessoas avaliam a atuação de Martin Freeman como o personagem Bilbo? Como os filmes são recebidos em países diversos como Austrália, África do Sul, Japão, Índia, Finlândia ou Brasil? Os questionamentos pretendem uma análise aprofundada para descobrir os significados que o universo fantástico tem para pessoas de todo o mundo.

“O Brasil entrou na pesquisa porque o país reúne um número significativo de fãs, organizados em comunidades inclusive. A pesquisa permitirá a criação de um banco de dados mundial, que depois poderão ser explorada pelos pesquisadores em análises comparativas, ou de maneira específica com o público do seu país. No final, os dados também serão abertos e estarão disponíveis para o público”, explica Valquiria.

O projeto é inteiramente independente, e capitaneado pela empresa cinematográfica New Line Cinema e pelo diretor Peter Jackson. A coordenação geral da pesquisa é do professor Martin Baker, da Universidade de Aberystwyth, que inclusive, foi quem fez o convite às duas universidades brasileiras, que se destacam por suas pesquisas na área de recepção midiática. O questionário ficará disponível no site www.worldhobbitproject.org até maio de 2015.

3 comentários em “Brasil participa de pesquisa mundial sobre “O Hobbit””

  1. Estava olhando o link do trabalho indicado ao lado da página de "about us" (Wacthing The Lord of The Rings):

    http://www.participations.org/volume 3/issue 2 – special/3_02_eganbarker.htm

    [QUOTE]

    Abstract

    In a recent article, Sonia Livingstone has attempted to summarise some of the many problems, complexities and challenges which researchers face when conducting cross-cultural audience projects.  This essay tells the story of the specific problems and issues encountered during the Lord of the Rings international audience project, in order to offer this project as a case study of how such problems can be anticipated or encountered and then managed, and to also offer up some new issues and questions that have emerged during the course of the project which, we feel, deserve to be considered and brought in to the cross-cultural debate.  These include, in particular, the benefits and pitfalls of international web questionnaires, multi-dimensional forms of international research (reception research, questionnaires and qualitative interviews), and electronic and face-to-face forms of communication amongst research partners.

    [/QUOTE]

    É interessante pra se ler um pouco do texto principalmente com relação ao que o autor fala sobre questionários de web.

    Indo a fundo no assunto penso que há a visão de que o impacto do cinema segue a lógica do que havia na antigüidade no teatro grego (tragédia, comédia, sátira) que se balizava pela introdução ou iniciação de assuntos ou sistemas de assuntos por meio de ritos de passagem que afetavam a audiência em diversos níveis de percepção (direta, indireta, consciente, subconsciente):

    [QUOTE]Martin Litchfield West speculates that early studies in Greek religion and theatre, which are inter-related, especially the Orphic Mysteries, was heavily influenced by Central Asian shamanistic practices.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theatre_of_ancient_Greece

    [/QUOTE]

    [QUOTE]

    Abstract:  The Eleusinian Mysteries induced an “artificial crisis” in

    participants that effected a change in consciousness – metanoia.  This

    occurred as a result of extensive immersion in ritual behavior.  Ritual

    conditioned a susceptibility to arousal / quiescent neurological states

    that occur during extraordinary phases of consciousness.  A brief

    description And overview of the nine days of the Mysteries And

    cosmological beliefs are reviewed.  Socrates is described as a revealer

    of these Mysteries in Phaedrus.  This may have been the basis of the

    indictment of “impiety” that led to his execution.

    This paper reflects upon on the phenomenology of religious

    experience.  It is bracketed by two assertions:  Walter Burkert’s thesis

    that Mysteries were initiation rituals of a voluntary, personal And secret

    nature that aimed at a change of mind through experience of the sacred

    [ii] And Synesius’ preservation of a comment by Aristotle on “the

    condition” to which initiates are brought And katharsis as preparation

    for an experience of the sacred.

    The Eleusinian Mysteries spanned a time from two to four thousand

    years ago in a world both alien And familiar to those who live in the

    twenty-first century.  It is a world permeated with anxiety And dread,

    perhaps not unlike that of America after 9/11 or during the multi-decade

    Cold War.  Famine is a persistent threat.  A single crop failure can spell

    the difference between life And death.  The risk of war, whether from

    marauding bands or organized armies, is constant.  Death or slavery

    awaits the losers of a conflict.  The family provides the only social

    safety net for most.  The common person lives at the precipice of

    disaster.  Gods dwell as close (And as distant And unattainable) as

    snow-covered Mt. Olympus.  The fears And anxieties of those who

    participated in the Mysteries were distilled And focused through an

    induced crisis of panic.  As a result, the “invisible world” commingled

    And became visible.

    An Overview of the Ritual

    Imagine a multitude gathering twenty-five hundred years ago.  After

    days of preparation And fasting, a mass of processions snake between

    Athens And Eleusis, buoyed by an increasing sense of expectation And

    excitement.  Dusk falls.  Thousands of torches are lit And blaze under

    darkening skies.  The Milky Way gleams overhead And just a sliver of

    the moon gives light.  The initiates sip the kykeon.  First singularly, then

    in groups, And subsequently in hundreds And thousands the initiates

    are thrust into a frenetic dance.  The crowd pushes on all sides And

    one can only move as the multitude moves.  In the dark, the crowd

    surges And runs about in circles over uncertain roads in mindless,

    hyperkinetic activity.  The sense of being pressed upon, the fear of

    being trampled, And a sense of heightening claustrophobia grows in

    many.  Uncertainty reigns.  Figures jump from the darkness to frighten

    And direct the massive crowd.  No one knows what will happen next.

    So much dust rises from this human stampede that from miles away an

    army mistakes the dust cloud for an opposing army on the march.

    Each individual knows that s/he must enter the great hall of initiation.

    Independent movement is impossible.  The darkness removes all sense

    of direction.  Breathing becomes difficult because of the pressing of the

    crowd.  All are on the edge of panic.

    Then, somewhere, a door appears.  Everyone rushes toward it

    directed by shadowy figures.  Exhausted from lack of sleep, fasting, And

    terror, initiates finally enter a darkened great hall panting And short of

    breath.  The hall fills to capacity.  Above, the hierophant – the leader of

    the Mysteries – appears.  Eyes focus upon him, silence falls.  He

    speaks, And then strikes an enormous gong.  The room reverberates

    with thunderous noise.  Suddenly, in the cupola above, an enormous

    burst of flame fills the initiation hall with light, fire escapes through the

    ceiling And is seen for miles.

    Within the hall, a goddess And other apparitions appear.

    There is great joy And celebration.  As the night concludes, the initiates

    come out of the mystery hall feeling dissociated – like strangers to

    themselves. In the next days And weeks, they perceive the world

    differently – this metanoia, a change of perception or consciousness,

    results in changes of behavior.

    Ritual Behavior During the Nine Days of the Mysteries[iii]

    Although it was not viewed in this way at the time of the Mysteries, a

    conditioning process –through the initiates’ immersion into dromena –

    religious ritual – prepared the initiates for an intense mystical

    experience.  Ritual is structured, rhythmic And repetitive behavior that

    has two psychological results:  the first is that it acts to synchronize the

    affective, perceptual-cognitive And motor processes within the central

    nervous systems of individual participants; the second is that it

    synchronizes these processes among all participants[iv] leading to a

    common experience.  The full nine days of the ritual correspond to the

    period of time cited in the Homeric Hymns that the Goddess Demeter

    sought her daughter, Persephone.

    On the first day, participants gathered within Athen’s Stoa.  Those who

    have made the initial necessary preparations through the Lesser

    Mysteries held in the spring are welcomed.  Warnings are given to

    those who are excluded:  persons with unexpiated bloodguilt And those

    who do not speak Greek.  Whatever the exact call, initiates knew

    intellectually through their indoctrination in the Lesser Mysteries,

    emotionally through their expectations raised from former participants,

    And behaviorally from the long fifteen-mile trek from Athens to Eleusis,

    that they were entering into a sacred space And a sacred time.

    Initiates walk or ride from Athens to Eleusis along the Sacred Way

    under the darkness of new moon – a moon that although was unseen

    above, was believed to be full in the underworld.  Over the next several

    days, the initiates would walk that route several times, presaging the

    wanderings of the god Demeter.

    During the second day, in the early morning, shouts of “To the Sea, Oh

    Mystai!”  ring throughout Eleusis. The initiates purify themselves in the

    sea And offer sacrifice.

    The third day consists of fasting And official sacrifices in Athens; the

    initiates mourn Demeter’s loss of her daughter, Persephone.

    On the fourth night, the initiates meditated on Askleipios, the god of

    healing, whose sleep incubation temples were famed throughout the

    classical world.  Perhaps falling asleep, watching the Milky Way swirl

    above them, the initiates awaited a dream oracle that would bring

    healing, the first movement into an altered state. Since persons came

    from the entire Greek-speaking world – from as far west as modern Italy

    And far east as Turkey, initiates who traveled from a great distance And

    arrived late were able begin their preparations.  For those who took part

    in the activities of the opening days, this was a day of rest.  A second

    sacrifice was held for the benefit of Athens.

    The fifth day, immediately before the initiation, was one of high

    expectations.  All are gathered And excitement builds.  In the early

    morning, a carriage transports the hiera (holy objects) from the Eleusion

    in Athens to Eleusis.  A wooden statue of Iacchos leads the procession

    to raucous cries.  It was an exciting journey where they called out

    “Iacchos!!!  Iacchos!!!” the name of a god who symbolized ecstatic

    transport.  On the road to Eleusis, the ecstatic procession of the god

    Iacchos would precipitate the first dramatic experience of altered

    consciousness.  The initiate would have been conditioned And

    reinforced into suggestive absorption of a complex of beliefs that

    constituted the sole, exclusive or totally dominating object of

    consciousness resulting in ecstasy.  It was a day that was physically

    demanding And emotionally inspiring, left initiates feeling filled with a

    god.  Physical hyperarousal begins.  Along the Sacred Way, initiates

    pass by several cemeteries that reinforce the theme of death And dying

    in their minds.  When they reach the Kephisos Bridge outside the

    sacred precinct, the procession slows.  At this narrow bridge men in

    masks insult And pillory the rich And famous to the amusement of all.

    Participants were removed from their daily life And routine And placed in

    a new environment.  The secrecy surrounding the Mysteries would

    have heightened the expectation, exacerbated a sense of uncertainty

    And ultimately lift the participants from an emotional frenzy to a spiritual

    deliverance.  The emotional frenzy was tied to its Dionysian base where

    under the influence of torches, wine, heady music And dancing, the

    worshipers felt exalted.  That evening, during the Kernophoria, women

    carry the kernos And lights or small hearths on their heads.  At the

    conclusion, initiates sleep overnight in Eleusis.

    The next night is the night of Initiation.  The moon does not appear until

    several hours after sunset.  The day is spent in fasting And purification.

    The initiates carry handfuls of agricultural produce that were the

    badges of a civilized life.  The fast is broken when the stars came out.

    Initiates drink a wine called kykeon.  The initiation proper begins.

    Ancient sources record initiates running, increasingly desperately,

    throughout the night.  They are terrified; shiver, tremble, sweat[v] And

    run as if possessed.  After perhaps hours of these exertions, initiates

    enter the hall of initiation filled with horror And astonishment, loneliness

    And perplexity.  The crowd is crushing And initiates are unable to move

    a step forward.[vi]

    Soon the procession would arrive at the outer court of the sanctuary.

    The Telesterion (initiation hall) was expanded in the second century b.c.

    e. large enough to accommodate several thousand initiates who during

    the rites stood on steps along the four inner walls.  Because of the size

    of the building, the entire procession that led to the Telesterion

    probably did not enter.  Only those who had received the Lesser

    Mysteries, had fasted And sacrificed, penetrated.  In each stage of the

    initiation, fewer would participate.  This was largely because of space

    consideration, but There may also have been a symbolic meaning as

    well.  The orator Maximos of Tyre said:  Until thou hast reached the

    Anaktoron, (the inner sanctuary) thou has not been initiated.  The

    Anaktoron stood in the center of the Telesterion.  The information of

    what occurred during the following "nights of the Mysteries" is lost in the

    mists of history.  However, we may feel certain that the rites included

    three different elements:  the dromena – that which was enacted; the

    deiknymena – the sacred objects that were shown; And the legomena –

    the words that were spoken- that was the communication of the myth

    And its attendant formulas.

    The dromena – that which was enacted- is perhaps the easiest to

    guess.  Classical Greek tragedy still lives with force within our western

    cultures.  The dramatic arts were highly developed And it is not wild

    speculation that an initial drama based on the myth of Demeter was

    presented.  This would have the added effect of opening the

    participants to the world of religious symbolism, remind the initiates of

    the essence of their beliefs, And prepare their hearts And spirits for

    catharsis that would come.  Aristotle described one aspect of the

    change of awareness caused by the initiates’ experience as a katharsis

    of relief And joy.[vii]  This katharsis may have offered a relief from an

    almost existential dread of fear And nothingness.  In his Poetics,

    Aristotle investigated both what happened in the minds of the audience

    at a tragedy And the experience offered by the annually recurring

    venture of Eleusis.  Spectators at public plays had no need to build up a

    state of concentration by ritual preparations; they neither fasted, drank

    the kykeon, nor marched in a procession.  Consequently, they did not

    attain a state of epopteia, of "having seen" by their inner resources.

    The poet, the chorus, And the actors created a vision at the theater.

    Without effort, the spectators were transported into what they saw.  In

    the Mysteries, catharsis had to take effect long before the epopteia.

    "Through pity And terror", wrote Aristotle, "tragedy brought purification

    from all of these passions."[viii]

    The seventh day, following the night of initiation, would have the

    initiates gather And gaze up to the heavens And cry aloud “rain”; they

    gaze upon the earth And cry, “conceive.”  The initiation celebration is

    brought to a close And the statue of Iacchos returns to Athens.

    Much of the final full eighth day is spent singing And dancing.  The

    hierophant fills two plemochoai (wine jars), And inverts them (standing

    up And facing the east in the one, the west in the other), reciting a

    mystical formula over them.[ix]

    The following morning, during the ninth day, participants return home in

    time for fall plowing of the fields.[x]  They have experienced a revelation

    that has changed their lives.

    Metanoia

    What initiates experienced was so powerful that it set into motion

    behavior change both on an individual And societal level.  Several

    authors described this change.  For Socrates arête (excellence or

    virtue) was something that proceeded from within outward; an attitude

    springing from an insight of the nature And meaning of human life.[xi]

    Eleusis provided this inspiration.  Specific areas of change are

    described by Pausanias to include living piously, honoring parents,

    glorifying gods And not harming animals.[xii]  Diodorus Siculus

    commented on the acquisition of virtues including courage, success,

    And justice.[xiii]  Cicero viewed this change to be both long-lasting And

    beneficial to Greek society as a whole.  It caused a social shift from

    barbarity to civilization And offered the possibility of dying with hope[xiv]

    – an immense benefit in a society where hope was brief And fleeting.

    Seneca asserts (then as now) “the majority of persons do what they do

    without knowing why.”[xv]  The nine days of ritual behavior of the

    Eleusinian Mysteries is choreographed to induce what Proclus

    described as sympathy of the soul resulting in panic, awe, assimilation

    And possession. [xvi]  A lack of sleep, a mounting sense of expectation

    an frenetic physical activity all lead to physical, emotional, And neural

    hyperarousal.  The experience of great chaos breaks down other

    standard behavior And allows for a new restructuring of belief,

    awareness And reality.  One is taken out of one’s day-to-day life And

    placed within an environment carefully choreographed to prepare the

    initiate for the psychic And social reorientation that will soon occur.

    This new environment is so interwoven with fear And expectation that

    Plutarch describes initiation as similar to dying with shivering, trembling,

    sweating, And utter amazement as a prelude.[xvii]

    The predisposition an initiate to experience an altered state of

    consciousness that would lead to lasting changes of behavior would be

    dramatically influenced by the set And setting of the ceremonies.  The

    dream like quality of the experience was enhanced by the fact that most

    of the group activities of the Mysteries took place at dusk And during

    night.  Three general hypotheses may explain the dynamic underlying

    religious experience such as that provided by the Mysteries:

    1.  Initiates truly come into contact with a divine being.  There was a

    sacred experience that was objectively real.  This argument cannot be

    proven.

    2.  The kykeon that initiates drank had hallucinogenic properties.

    The is the hypothesis of Wasson et al.[xviii] Eleusinian iconography

    often feature poppies.  A wine product (kykeon) was drunk, And

    apparitions reported. During my research, I am unaware of any of the

    secondary hallucinogenic symbology that one often finds when a potent

    drug is part of a ceremony.  An even more pressing question might

    revolve around “bad trips” – negative experiences persons may

    undergo while under the effects of hallucinogens.  Participants reported

    engaging in an experience that was terrifying And chaotic.  Should a

    large majority of persons been under the influence of hallucinogens,

    their experiences may have been so negative that it is unlikely that the

    Mysteries would have continued to grow.

    3.  Religious experience has a physiological component connected

    with the physical evolution of neural circuitry within the brain And the

    effects of ritualized behavior that lead to alterations of consciousness.

    The brain’s arousal, quiescent, And limbic system reacted to the

    external stimuli of the nine days of mysteries that included fasting,

    frantic dancing And running, repetitive rhythms, And choreographed

    information that resulted in an altered state of perception that

    transformed persons’ lives.  This argument follows Newberg’s

    hypothesis[xix]And incorporates Aristotle’s conjecture that initiates have

    an experience to undergo And a condition into which they must be

    brought, while they are becoming fit (for revelation.)  The evidence in

    this claim is as follows:

    •  When contemporary researchers study the brain waves through

    Single Positron Emission Computed Topography (SPECT) And other

    brain image scanning techniques, a physiological hyperquiescent state

    – an extraordinary state of relaxation that happens during meditative

    phases- can be observed.  This state is associated with “slow”

    ritualistic behavior such as changing or prayer.  In contrast, when

    persons engage in frenzied ritual behavior such as dancing or running

    the hyperarousal state occurs.  A person can enter into the same state

    when the continuous processing of information becomes so voluminous

    that interjection of thought And ego-centered decision-making would

    prove disadvantageous.  Searching in mad pursuit for the initiation hall

    during the Eleusinian Mysteries would put a person in this condition.

    This state is associated with keen alertness And concentration.  The

    hyperarousal state with eruption of the quiescent system occurs when

    arousal activity is so extreme that the quiescent system becomes

    activated.  When this occurs, people may experience an orgasmic,

    rapturous, or ecstatic rush resulting in trance-like states.[xx]

    •  From a societal viewpoint, the first consideration is the cultural

    milieu.  Theocratic attitudes permeated Greece And most of the ancient

    Mediterranean states.  Impiety is punished by death.  Religious oracles

    are consulted And responses offered in prophetic frenzy.  Decisions of

    city, state, And individuals are discerned from careful examination of the

    flight of birds, the examination of entrails of sacrificial animals, the

    whispering of wind through the leaves of trees, And the random

    chattering of children.  Philosophy And the law build upon religious

    beliefs to develop codes of conduct.  These new behaviors are

    reinforced by ritual And societal conventions.  Therefore, within a

    person’s cognitive world-view the possibility of interaction with gods is

    ever-present.

    •  Altered states of consciousness are part of the awareness of the

    average citizen in the Greek polis.  During festivals, s/he would often

    have witnessed ecstasy (often associated with alcohol in Dionysic

    religious festivals; enthusiasm (en-theos) a state where a god enters a

    person And the person acts out in ways other than his/her normal

    behavior; And mystic orgia – a group dynamic where whole groupings

    of persons are in ecstatic And enthusiastic states.  Proclus Diadochus

    in On the Signs of Divine Possession breaks down the extraordinary

    variations in consciousness experienced in the ancient world.

    “Inanimate objects are often filled with Divine Light, like the statues

    which give oracles under the inspiration of one of the Gods or Good

    Daemons. So too, There are men who are possessed And who receive

    a Divine Spirit. Some receive it spontaneously, like those who are said

    to be ‘seized by God’, either at particular times, or intermittently And on

    occasion. There are others who work themselves up into a state of

    inspiration by deliberate actions. When divine inspiration comes There

    are some cases where the possessed become completely besides

    themselves And unconscious of themselves. However, There are others

    where, in some remarkable manner, they maintain consciousness. In

    these cases it is possible for the subject to work the Theagogy on

    himself, And when he receives the inspiration, is aware of what it [i.e.

    the Divine Power] does And what it says, And what he has to do

    release the mechanism [of possession]. However, when the loss of

    consciousness (ekstaseôs) is total, it is essential that someone in full

    command of his faculties assists the possessed".[xxi]

    These trance states are conditions of dissociated consciousness,

    psychologically induced And reversible.  They are characterized by felt

    emotions of sacredness, transcendence, a sense of unity, ineffability,

    And persistent positive changes in attitude. [xxii]  These states would

    have been viewed as both “normal” And attainable increasing a person’

    s predisposition to these states of consciousness.

    As Above, So Below:  Cosmology

    Among the aspects of the Mysteries that deserve further investigation is

    the relation of celestial objects with the mystic experience.  Within the

    framework of both the Lesser And Greater Mysteries, initiates receive

    verbal And visual instructions, explanations of myths And a deepening

    religious context.  The glowing stars above may have offered them a

    canvas upon which to project these beliefs And instructions, a

    methodology not unlike stain glass windows in medieval cathedrals.

    The first night of the Mysteries occurred under a new moon when the

    night was completely black And the Milky Way spanned the heavens.

    The Pythagorean doctrine of metempsychosis that permeated the

    Greek worldview was one that maintained that each soul has its own

    star from which it has come And to which it will return.[xxiii]  Dodds

    discusses how Aristotle, following hints in Plato, had drawn a line that

    came to be generally accepted:  above the line, beyond the moon, lay

    the unvarying heavens where the stars moved “rank on rank And time

    And space mmo as well.  The army of unalterable law”, below it lay the

    sub lunar world, the domain of chance, mutability And death.  In this

    glittering house of many mansions the earth appeared as the meanest

    mansion of all:  it was held to be compact of the mere dregs And

    sediment of the universe, the cold, heavy, impure stuff whose weight

    had caused it to shrink to the center.[xxiv]  In the deepening dark of

    night, perhaps initiates wondered which star was theirs.  What was

    needed, And perhaps provided, was a star map, directions to the

    celestial realm.

    Plutarch relates that at death, the souls of persons were “destined to

    wander in the region between earth And moon” as a form of

    purification.  Similarly to how moths are drawn to the flame, souls are

    drawn to the moon.  Many are “swept away” from their attachment, but

    a few find “a firm footing” And “go about like victors crowned with

    wreaths of feathers called wreathes of steadfastness.”[xxv]  In the

    Phaedrus, Socrates asserts that it takes ten thousand years for a soul

    to grow wings And return to where she came.  During the initiation

    ceremony There is some evidence of initiates being crowned with

    feathers, symbolic of the soul.  Socrates describes the reincarnated

    souls as initiates when he says that “once when amidst that happy

    company, we beheld with our eyes that blessed vision, ourselves in the

    train of Zeus…then were we all initiated into the mystery which is rightly

    accounted blessed above all others…Beauty shone bright amidst these

    visions.”[xxvi]

    In addition to the moon, the constellation today called Gemini, was seen

    as guiding lights for those hoping to break out of the mortal sphere into

    the realm of the gods.”[xxvii]  The constellation Virgo was thought to be

    Demeter “because of the sheaf of grain she holds.”  Initiates would only

    need to look up to see the benevolent Goddess gazing upon them.

    Conclusion:  Revelation in the Phaedrus

    Plato’s dialogue Phaedrus is a strange book.  It meanders wildly from

    topic to topic, balances between jest And seriousness, And finally

    targets its main concern, drawing all the previous threads of reasoning

    together.  It begins with a discourse between Phaedrus – a handsome

    young man – And Socrates.  The dialogue intimates an on-going

    psychological seduction of Phaedrus by his sophist teacher Lysias.

    [xxviii]  This discussion culminates in the final discussion of ecstatic

    love And the issues of ecstasy And trance.  Socrates even jokes with

    Phaedrus (on offers his perception on the contagion of manic behavior)

    that he observed him in an ecstasy, followed his example, And became

    inspired with divine frenzy.  Socrates then makes one of his first veiled

    comments on the inefficacy of oracles.  He tells Phaedrus trees And

    open country won’t teach me anything whereas men in the town do.

    [xxix]  This appears to refer to a tradition in the temple of Dodona that

    oaks first gave prophetic utterances.  Dodds relates a saying that “the

    men of that day…deemed that if they heard the truth, even from “oak or

    rock” that was enough for them.

    Then Phaedrus And Socrates pass by the spot of the rape of the nymph

    Oreithyia by Boreas.  Phaedrus asked Socrates if he believed that story

    to be true And Socrates answers that he would not be at a loss if he did

    disbelieve it.[xxx]  A number of story lines begin being tied together at

    this point.  The psychological rape of Phaedrus by Lysias, the seizure,

    abduction, And rape of Persephone by Hades that formed the core myth

    of the Mysteries, And the beginning of “veiled” references to the

    Mysteries.  The dialogue moves toward a dangerous ground of both

    discussing the mysteries And impiety – acts that could result in a person’

    s execution.  A dizzying verbal labyrinth of twists And turns, stops And

    starts, And dangers And escapes follows.  Socrates continues his

    almost reckless dash And – in the midst of joking he veils his face in

    imitation of an initiate.[xxxi]  Phaedrus observes that Socrates appears

    to be inspired.  Socrates warns him to listen in silence for the place is

    holy.  In abrupt change, Socrates then moves perilously close to

    blasphemy by stating:  “I have enough religion for my own needs.”

    Once again, Socrates draws away from the precipice of impiety by

    acknowledging that his daimon is “forbidding me to leave the spot until I

    had made atonement for some offense to heaven…I understand well

    enough what my offense was”[xxxii] And concludes his previous

    comments were “foolish And somewhat blasphemous” And

    necessitating purification.[xxxiii]

    At this point that the dialogue turns serious And Socrates examines the

    nature of ecstasy.  He states that “the greatest blessing comes by way

    of mania, as long as mania is heaven-sent,”[xxxiv] differentiating

    between mental illness And the entry of a god into the soul.  The

    behavior of one divinely inspired is odd:  “the multitude regard him as

    being out of his wits, for they know not he is full of a god.” [xxxv]

    Socrates further divides the mania that is god-inspired into four kinds

    [xxxvi]:  divination, katharsis, poetic mania, And erotic love.  Those

    divinely inspired account for oracles.  Katharsis is the purge of emotion

    that frees persons And was interwoven into the Eleusinian Mysteries.

    Muses reveal poetic mania to someone such as Homer.  Erotic love ties

    the first part of the dialogue to its current state. Then Socrates opines

    that the soul traverses the universe as if provided with wings.[xxxvii]

    Here he may touched upon the reason for Porphyry’s description of a

    taboo:  “whoever is acquainted with the nature of divinely-luminous

    appearances knows also on what account it is requisite to abstain from

    all birds, And especially for him who hastens to be liberated from

    terrestrial concerns, And to be established with the celestial Gods.”

    [xxxviii]  Then, according to Socrates, after approximately ten thousand

    years, depending on how much truth the soul has seen in its sojourn,

    comes to birth in descending order of importance as:  a philosopher,

    artist, musician, or lover; a righteous king, or warrior, or lord; a

    politician, economist, or trader; a gymnast or physician; a prophet or

    hierophant; a poet or imitator; an artisan or husbandman; a sophist or

    demagogue; or finally as a tyrant.  The benefits of philosophy come,

    Socrates concludes when those initiated into the mysteries of

    philosophy “saw a vision…beholding apparitions innocent, And simple,

    And calm And happy as in a mystery, shining in pure light, pure

    ourselves.”

    In the years immediately prior to his execution, Socrates was already

    under suspicion by Athenian citizens.  Not only had he made it his

    livelihood (in some citizens’ views) to pillory the rich And famous by

    demonstrating they did not truly know anything, but he was associated

    in the common mind with the Thirty Tyrants who – in what could be

    described as a right-wing coup – had overthrown the Athenian

    democracy.  When the democracy was restored, Socrates’ relationship

    with Critias, Alcibiades And the like made him vulnerable to charges of

    corrupting the young And impiety.  Within the Phaedrus, Socrates is

    shown revealing in philosophical And mystical language how persons

    may enter into the celestial realm.  This may have been sufficient

    excuse for Athenian citizens to force Socrates into drinking the hemlock.

    ENDNOTES

      Synesius:  Dio 1133

    [ii]  Walter Burkert.  Ancient Mystery Cults.  Cambridge:  Harvard

    University Press, 1987, p. 11.

    [iii]  I am indebted to George E. Mylonas in his excellent Eleusis

    And the Eleusinian Mysteries,

    [iv]  Eugene d'Aquili And Andrew B. Newberg.  The Mystical Mind: 

    Probing the Biology of Religious Experience.  Minneapolis: Fortress

    Press, 1999, p. 89.

    [v]  (The passage from Plutarch's essay On the Soul survives

    today only because Stobaeus (Florigelium 120) quoted it. Grant, F. C.

    Hellenistic Religions p. 148)

    [vi]  Themistius.  Orat. in Patrem. 50

    [vii]  “All who use these rites experience relief mixed with joy.” 

    Aristotle.  Poetics 1342a.

    [viii]  Aristotle.  Poetics 1342a.

    [ix]  Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists XI, 496a.

    [x]  Proclus, Fragment XXIII

    [xi]  Plato.  Protagorus 329d

    [xii]  “The Eleusinian Mystai assert that they, as initiates, lead their

    life piously in relation to foreigners And to ordinary people.  There were

    Laws of Triptolemos in Eleusis that laid down the duty ‘to honor

    parents, to glorify the gods with fruits And not to harm animals.” Walter

    Burkert.  Greek Religion.  Cambridge:  Harvard University Press, 1985,

    p 301.

    [xiii]  “Now the details of the initiatory rite are guarded among the

    matters not to be divulged And are communicated to the initiates alone;

    but the fame has traveled wide of how these gods appear to mankind

    And bring unexpected aid to those initiates of theirs who call upon them

    in the midst of perils. The claim is also made that men who have taken

    part in the mysteries become both more pious And more just And better

    in every respect than they were before. And this is the reason, we are

    told, why the most famous both of the ancient heroes And of the demi-

    gods were eagerly desirous of taking part in the initiatory rite; And in

    fact Jason And the Dioskouri, And Heracles And Orpheus as well, after

    their initiation attained success in all the campaigns they undertook,

    because these gods appeared to them.”  (Diodorus Siculus V, 48, 49)

    [xiv]  “For among the many excellent And indeed divine institutions

    which your Athens has brought forth And contributed to human life,

    none, in my opinion, is better than those mysteries. For by their means

    we have been brought out of our barbarous And savage mode of life

    And educated And refined to a state of civilization; And as the rites are

    called "initiations," so in very truth we have learned from them the

    beginnings of life, And have gained the power not only to live happily,

    but also to die with a better hope.

    (Cicero Laws II, xiv, 36)

    [xv]  Walter Burkert.  Structure And History in Greek Mythology

    And Ritual.  Berkeley:  University of California Press, 1979 p. 38.

    [xvi]  “They cause sympathy of the souls with the ritual in a way

    that is unintelligible to us, And divine, so that some of the initiands are

    stricken with panic, being filled with divine awe, others assimilate

    themselves to the holy symbols, leave their own identity, become at

    home with the gods, And experience divine possession.”  Walter

    Burkert.  Ancient Mystery Cults.  Cambridge:  Harvard University Press,

    1987, p. 114.

    [xvii]  Thus death And initiation closely correspond; even the words

    (teleutan And teleisthai) correspond, And so do the things. At first There

    are wanderings, And toilsome running about in circles And journeys

    through the dark over uncertain roads And culs de sac; then, just before

    the end, There are all kinds of terrors, with shivering, trembling,

    sweating, And utter amazement. After this, a strange And wonderful light

    meets the wanderer; he is admitted into clean And verdant meadows,

    where he discerns gentle voices, And choric dances, And the majesty of

    holy sounds And sacred visions. Here the now fully initiated is free, And

    walks at liberty like a crowned And dedicated victim, joining in the

    revelry; he is the companion of pure And holy men, And looks down

    upon the uninitiated And unpurified crowd here below in the mud And

    fog, trampling itself down And crowded together, though of death

    remaining still sunk in its evils, unable to believe in the blessings that lie

    beyond. That the wedding And close union of the soul with the body is

    a thing really contrary to nature may clearly be seen from all this.  (The

    passage from Plutarch's essay On the Soul survives today only

    because Stobaeus (Florigelium 120) quoted it. Grant, F. C. Hellenistic

    Religions p. 148)

    [xviii]  R. Gordon Wasson, Carl Ruck, Albert Hoffman.  The Road to

    Eleusis:  Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries.  New York:  Harcourt,

    Brace, Jovanovich, 1978.

    [xix]  Eugene d'Aquili And Andrew B. Newberg.  The Mystical Mind'

    Probing the Biology of Religious Experience.  Minneapolis: Fortress

    Press, 1999.

    [xx]  Eugene d'Aquili And Andrew B. Newberg.  The Mystical Mind:

    Probing the Biology of Religious Experience.  Minneapolis: Fortress

    Press, 1999, p. 25-6.

    [xxi]  Proclus Diadochus.  On the Signs of Divine Possession. 

    (From: Psellus’ Accusation against Michael Cerularius before the

    Synod)  Stephen Ronan, translator, http://www.esotericism.co.uk/proclus-

    signs.htm

    [xxii]  Dean Hammer.  The God Gene: How Faith is Hardwired into

    Our Genes.  New York: Doubleday, 2004, p. 83.

    [xxiii]  Walter Burkert.  Greek Religion.  Cambridge:  Harvard

    University Press, 1985, p 328.

    [xxiv]  E.R. Dodds.  Pagan And Christian in an Age of Anxiety: 

    Some Aspects of Religious Experience from Marcus Aurelius to

    Constantine.  New York:  Norton, 1965, pp 6-7.

    [xxv]  Plutarch.  The Face of the Moon 28

    [xxvi]  Plato.  Phaedrus 250b5.

    [xxvii]  Walter Burkert.  Greek Religion.  Cambridge:  Harvard

    University Press, 1985, p 213.

    [xxviii]  Plato.  Phaedrus (227 c7)

    [xxix]  Plato.  Phaedrus.  230 c6

    [xxx]  Plato.  Phaedrus.  229 c4

    [xxxi]  Plato.  Phaedrus.  237 a4 

    [xxxii]  Plato.  Phaedrus.  242 b-d 

    [xxxiii]  Plato.  Phaedrus. 243.

    [xxxiv]  Plato.  Phaedrus 244a6

    [xxxv]  Plato.  Phaedrus 249 d2

    [xxxvi]  Plato.  Phaedrus 244

    [xxxvii]  Plato.  Phaedrus 246.

    [xxxviii]  Porphyry.  On Abstinence From Animal Food, IV, 16.



    SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Eugene d'Aquili And Andrew B. Newberg.  The Mystical Mind:  Probing

    the Biology of Religious Experience.  Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1999.


    Ernst Arbman.  Ecstasy or Religious Trance In the Experience of

    Ecstatics And from the Psychological Point of View.  Volume 1:  Vision

    And Ecstasy. Scandinavian University Books, Upsala, 1963.


    Simon Bennett.  Mind And Madness in Ancient Greece:  The Classical

    Roots of Modern Psychiatry.  Ithaca:  Cornell University Press, 1978.


    Walter Burkert.  Ancient Mystery Cults.  Cambridge:  Harvard University

    Press, 1987; Greek Religion.  Cambridge.  Harvard University Press. 

    1985; Structure And History in Greek Mythology And Ritual.  Berkeley: 

    University of California Press, 1982.


    Kevin Clinton.  Myth And Cult:  The Iconography of the Eleusinian

    Mysteries. Stockholm, Svenska Institute, Athens, 1992.


    E.R. Dodds.  The Greeks And the Irrational.  Berkeley:  University of

    California Press, 1951; Pagan And Christian in an Age of Anxiety: 

    Some Aspects of Religious Experience from Marcus Aurelius to

    Constantine.  New York:  W.W. Norton And Company, 1965.


    Dean Hammer.  The God Gene: How Faith is Hardwired into Our

    Genes.  New York: Doubleday, 2004.


    George E. Mylonas.  Eleusis And the Eleusinian Mysteries.  Princeton,

    Princeton University Press, 1961.


    Nicholas Spanos And John Chaves.  Hypnosis:  The Cognitive-

    Behavioral Perspective.  Buffalo:  Prometheus Books, 1989.


    Herbert And David Spiegel, M.D.  Trance And Treatment:  Clinical Uses

    of Hypnosis.  New York:  Basic Books, 1978.


    R.  Gordon Wasson, Carl Ruck, Albert Hoffman.  The Road to Eleusis:

    Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries.  New York:  Harcourt, Brace,

    Jovanovich, 1978.


    Michael Winkelman.  Trance states:  A theoretical model And cross

    cultural analysis.  Ethos, vol 14(2), Summer 1986.


    David Wulff.  Mystical Experience in Varieties of Anomalous Experience:

    Examining the Scientific Evidence.  Etzel Cardena, Steven Jay Lynn &

    Stanley Krippner, (eds.) Washington D.C.:  American Psychological

    Association, 2000.


    http://eleusinianmysteries.org/Metanoia.html


    [/QUOTE]

    Quer dizer, muita coisa acontece quando ondas de choque da cultura pop alcançam as pessoas e se subentende que a audiência tende a se estratificar primeiro entre aqueles que se focam apenas naquilo que é o começo do mistério clássico (ou daquilo que é novo e desconhecido para a pessoa) visado pelas regras de drama no teatro grego (o entretenimento), e de um segundo grupo,  daqueles que buscarão "tirar" algo mais por trás do filme.

    No que é digno de nota observar que dentro do universo de fãs isso já vinha ocorrendo na época dos livros criando classes mais "profissionalizadas" de fãs veteranos produzindo trabalhos próprios derivados como livros, pinturas e desenhos.

    A partir do nível de apreciação das pessoas serão gerados dados e tendências juntando-se os perfis e descobrindo quais são os grupos que gostam mais ou menos do filme (e conseqüentemente quem tende a consumir mais).

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